Hero or villain, Jose Doroteo Arango Arambula was a major player in the first quarter of the last century. His "Robin Hood" exploits endeared him to his followers and irritated merchants and landholders. On the fifteenth of March in 1916, President Wilson authorized the use of 12,000 troops to pursue this bandit into Mexico. Perhaps the US was a little irritated with his raids into American territoy, and the Battle of Columbus (NM) was not forgotten. Under the leadership of General John J. Pershing, this contingent chased the man for a year and failed to capture him.
Upon his retirement from action in 1920, Arango was given a large estate which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. He was assassinated in 1923 when he chose not to get involved in Mexican politics again. Twenty years after his death, he was recognized as a Mexican national hero, and his memory is honored by Mexicans, Americans and many other peoples worldwide. Many place names in Mexico commemorate the life of Francisco Villa